TapD2- Tapping the Double Dividend: Household Energy in Developing Countries, Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation

Start of Project 10/2018
End of Project 04/2022

Climate policy often does not consider the energy demand of households for cooking in deve­loping coun­tries in spite of its substantial con­tri­bution to green­house gas emissions. The project examines the extent to which improved cooking stoves (ICS) in rural Senegal can re­duce both emissions and poverty. Market barriers for the introduction of ICS and effects of two different ICS types on emissions and health are analysed.

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Project results

Simple energy-efficient stoves can be an important bridging technology to reduce house­hold workloads and pressure on scarce fuelwood resources. The potential for climate change mitigation is also significant, and the cost is low at $2-12 per ton of CO2 equivalent avoided.

Air pollution in kitchens in rural Senegal massively exceeds limits set by the World Health Organization. The study is the first in the world to establish a link between ventilation and particulate matter concentration - a dimension neglected in international efforts to promote clean indoor air. We show that ventilation and cooking behavior play a major role and argue that this should be addressed more.

Furthermore, our results show that small private entrepreneurs can be leveraged to promote the diffusion of welfare-improving technologies such as improved stoves if liquidity constraints and information barriers are addressed.

Illustration of project results

Cumulative distribution of 24-hours mean PM2,5 kitchen concentration and personal exposure. Red lines indicate the WHO guide­line value and interim targets 4, 3, 2, and 1. Dots represent annual average PM2.5 air quality values for the eight most polluted mega-cities with more than 10 million inhabitants, from Lahore, Pakistan to Beijing, China (IQAir 2022; UN 2022).

Main Findings

  • Simple energy-efficient cookers can be an im­portant bridging technology to re­duce house­hold work­loads and pressure on scarce fuel­wood re­sources.
  • The potential for climate change miti­gation is significant and the cost is low at $2-12 per tonne of CO2 equi­valent avoi­ded.
  • A stronger focus on the supply chain of im­proved cook­stoves seems promising.
  • Ventilation and cooking be­haviour play a major role in par­ticulate matter con­centration and should be addressed more.


Bensch, G. et al. (2021):
Firewood use, air pollution and women’s health in rural Senegal: the role of improved cookstoves and kitchen ventilation. Policy Brief. 

Jeuland, M. et al. (2021):
Supporting vendors to enhance improved cookstove dissemination in rural Senegal. Policy Brief. 

Jeuland, M., Ndiaye, O., Usmani, F. (2021):
The more choice, the better? Evidence from experimental auctions in rural Senegal. Economics Letters 206: 109969.

Lin, Y. et al. (2021):
Malondialdehyde in Dried Blood Spots: A Biomarker of Systemic Lipid Peroxidation Linked to Cardiopulmonary Effects. Journal of Thoracic Disease 13 (6).