At the Paris Conference (COP 21) there was wide-spread political consensus to limit global warming to 1.5°C. However, the implementation and the necessary (national) actions were not specified. Thus, international climate policy is facing the challenge of negotiating a joint agenda.
The Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) are not yet sufficient to achieve the long-term goals of the agreement. Therefore, an intensified debate on the specific details of the NDCs in the ongoing UNFCCC process is expected. This includes the discussion on distributional issues and burden sharing between individual states as well as financial transfers between industrialized and developing countries.
The explosive nature of negotiations and conflict lines is intensified by the continued rise of global CO2 emissions. In addition, experiences from other areas of international politics indicate that individual states might attempt to circumvent the Paris Agreement. Therefore, the global challenge of internationally negotiating, implementing and monitoring climate policy will be analyzed to formulate solutions.